The growing popularity of unpasteurized milk in the United States raises public health concerns.
Unpasteurized milk, consumed by only 3.2% of the population, and cheese, consumed by only 1.6% of the population, caused 96% of illnesses caused by contaminated dairy products. Unpasteurized dairy products thus cause 840 times more illnesses and 45 times more hospitalizations than pasteurized products.
As consumption of unpasteurized dairy products grows, illnesses will increase steadily; a doubling in the consumption of unpasteurized milk or cheese could increase outbreak-related illnesses by 96%.
The objective of the study by Feeney et al was to examine associations between dairy food intake and metabolic health, identify patterns of dairy food consumption and determine whether dairy dietary patterns are associated with outcomes of metabolic health, in a cross-sectional survey.
A 4-day food diary was used to assess food and beverage consumption, including dairy (defined as milk, cheese, yogurt, cream and butter) in free-living, healthy Irish adults aged 18–90 years.
Higher (total) dairy was associated with lower body mass index, percent body fat, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio, and lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Similar trends were observed when milk and yogurt intakes were considered separately. Higher cheese consumption was associated with higher C-peptide.
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It has been suggested that probiotics may improve gastrointestinal discomfort. Not all probiotics exhibit the same effects and consequently meta-analyses on probiotics should be confined to well-defined strains or strain combinations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a probiotic fermented milk (PFM) that includes Bifidobacterium lactis (B. lactis) CNCM I-2494 and lactic acid bacteria on gastrointestinal discomfort in the general adult population.
The conclusions: The meta-analysis shows that the consumption of PFM with B. lactis CNCM I-2494 and lactic acid bacteria is associated with a modest but consistent and significant improvement of outcomes related to gastrointestinal discomfort in healthy adults.
While scientists have intensively studied the microbial ecology of fresh produce and animal products, little is known about the influences of storage, transport, and processing facilities. To shed light on the issue, Dr. Marco and colleagues set out to identify the microbiota of raw milks collected for large-scale product manufacturing in California. The scientists analyzed the bacteria in raw milk arriving in 899 tanker trucks at two different dairy processors in the California Central Valley in the fall of 2013 and the spring and summer of 2014.
In a study published online in mBio, the researchers report that bacteria varied by season and were highly diverse, with roughly 50% of the taxa present at less than 1% relative abundance. As a comparison, roughly 20% of human fecal communities are composed of taxa below 1% relative abundance. Milk also had a core microbiome composed of 29 different taxa, including Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, and unidentified Clostridiales.
Another important finding was what happened to the milk after it got to the dairy processing plant. “We saw this interesting shift of the types of bacteria that are dominant in the milk when it goes from the truck to the silos where the milk is stored before pasteurization,” said Dr. Marco. The conditions or microbial exposures at the processing facility outweighed the raw milk microbiome, and the bacterial composition changed distinctly within some, but not all silos, a short time after transfer.
The study demonstrates the viability for recovering good quality water from whey, a highly pollutant cheese-making by-product, to be reused in cleaning-in-place systems. The results obtained in this study indicate that by using a combined ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis system, 47% of water can be recovered. This system generates protein and lactose concentrates, by-products that once spray-dried fulfill commercial standards for protein and lactose powders. The physicochemical and microbiological quality of the recovered permeate was also analyzed, suggesting suitable properties to be reused in the cleaning-in-place system without affecting the quality and safety of the product manufactured on the cleaned equipment.
The findings provide scientific evidence to promote the safety of reuse of reconditioned water in food processing plants, contributing to building a culture of water conservation and sustainable production throughout the food supply chain.